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man – Online UNIX manual (“ man- pages”).
Gives detailed instructions on all of the commands listedhere and a lot more.
cat filename1 > filename2 – Overwrite contents of
filename2 with filename1 .
cat filename1 » filename2 – Append contents of
filename1 to filename2 .
cd /usr – Change current directory to /usr .
cd .. – Change current directory to previous higher
cd – Change to home of current userid.
chgrp group1 filename1 – Change group id to group 1 for filename1 .
chgrp - R group1 * – Change group id of all files in
current and subdirectories to group 1 .
chmod ugo+ rwx filename1 – Add read/ write/ execute
permission to filename1 for user/ owner, group and others (world).
chmod ox filename1 – Remove execute from others (world).
chmod 751 filename1 – Set rwx for user/ owner, rx for group and x for others. 
rwx= 421, r= 4, w= 2, x= 1 rx= 5x= 7x= 1.
chown sam filename1 – Change owner of file
filename1 to sam .
chown -R sam * – Change owner to sam for all files incurrent and subdirectories.
clear – Clear the terminal screen.
compress filename1 – Compress file filename1 . See also uncompress .
cp filename1 filename2 – Copy file filename1 to
filename2 destroying the contents of filename2.
cp -i * /usr/ local/ bin – Copy all files in current
directory to /usr/ local/ bin directory. Prompt before overwriting files ( i ).
cpio – Copy file archives to disk/ tape. See man pages.
crontab -e – Edit crontab file for userid.
crontab -e bill – Edit crontab file for user bill .
crontab -l – List crontab entries for current userid.
csh – Start the c shell process. See man pages.
cut d: f1, 5 /etc/ passwd – Extract username & real names from file /etc/ passwd  where
delimiter is colon getting fields 1 & 5.
who | cut d" " f1 – List login names from who
date – Display current date string.
date +% D – Display current date as 11/ 21/ 94 format.
dd – Copy file( s) to/ from raw devices. See man pages.
df – Display free disk blocks and modes on file systems.
df -k – Display free space in kilobytes for mounted file systems.
echo name – Displays literal "name" on screen.
echo $PATH – Displays PATH environment variable.
ed/ edit/ ex – Alternative line editors, see vi .
env – Displays current environment variables or allows setting.
file filename1 – Determines and displays type of file
for filename1 (text, data, executable, directory,
symbolic link... etc...).
find /usr/ opt/ bin -name "filename1*" -print – Starts
searching in /usr/ opt/
bin for files starting with
filename1 . If found prints the full file names and
continues searching subdirectories.
find . -type f -print | xargs grep -i [PATTERN] –
Recursive grep for a pattern in a file (searches through files in subdirectories).
find . ! -mtime -< days> | /usr/ bin/ xargs rm -rf –
Finds and removes files older than <days> specified.
finger sam – Displays data about user session for sam .
ftp solar – Establishes a File Transfer Protocol session
over the network between current host and a host
named sola r. See man pages for additional ftp
grep jdoe /etc/ passwd – Searches the file /etc/ passwd searching for string "jdoe" . If found, displays
grep -i Sam filename1 – Search filename1 for upper or lower case string of  Sam and display lines found.

groups sam – List groups that sam is a member of.
head filename1 – Display first few lines of filename1
head -50 filename1 – Display first fifty lines of
id – List current user id and any group ids.
kill -9 1351 – Terminate process number 1351.
ksh – Start Korn Shell command interpreter. See man pages. Preferred shell for most users.
ln -s filename1 /usr/ opt/ filename2 – Create a
symbolic link named /usr/ opt/ filename2 that points to filename1 . See man pages.
lp -d lp1 filename1 – Print filename1 on destination printer lp1 .
lpstat -d – Displays name of default printer, if any.
lpstat -a – Lists printers accepting print requests.
lpstat -s – Displays most everything regarding printing.
lpstat -u sam – Displays status of sam 's print jobs.
ls -al – Displays all files in wide listing.
ls -al /bin/ k* – Displays files starting with k in /bin
mail sam – Starts mail message to sam .
mailx sam – Nicer looking mail utility.
mkdir -p /usr/ opt/ dirx – Creates dirx below /usr/ opt
make – Code compilation utility.
mkdir dirx – Creates directory dirx .
more filename1 – Displays single pages from
filename1 pausing after each page.
Many options.See man pages.
mv filename1 /usr/ opt/ – Moves filename1 to directory /usr/ opt . Unlike the cp (copy) command, mv removes file from origin.
netstat -i – Show the TCP/ IP network interfaces.
netstat -r – Show network route table.
netstat -rn – Displays routing information but bypasses hostname lookup.
netstat -a | more – Show the state of all sockets.
newgrp group1 – Changes current group to group 1.
news – Displays unread files from /usr/ news or
/var/ news.
nice / renice – Adjusts process’ execution priority.
passwd – Allows changing your login password.
ps – Lists all of current user's live processes.
ps -ef – List all users processes that are executing.
pwd – Displays current working directory you are in.
rcp filename1 hostb:/ usr/ local/ bin – Copies
filename1 from current host system to hostb , and
places it in the /usr/ local/ bin directory. The .rhosts or
hosts. equiv files must be setup to allow action.
rksh – Starts restricted Korn Shell session.
rlogin hostb – Logs into remote host name hostb .
rm filename1 – Deletes filename1 from the disk
without recourse.
rm -i filename1 – Deletes filename1 after prompting
for verification.
rmdir dirx – Deletes directory dirx .
rmdir -r dirx – Deletes directory and all contents.
rsh – Restricted version of Bourne Shell for security.
sar – System Activity Reporter.
sh – Bourne Shell command interpreter. Alternative to
Korn Shell and C shell but is the default on most
systems. Older version that is losing popularity.
sleep 3 – Pauses for 3 seconds and continues.
stty sane – Attempts to restore terminal settings after
they are hosed. Use CTRL- J with this command.
stty erase ^H – Use to reset backspace/ delete. ^H is
the key you may want to use for backspace/ delete.
su sam – Logs you on as user sam .
su - sam – Log on as sam , and execute his profile too.
tail filename1 – Display last few lines of filename1
tail -50 filename1 – Display last fifty lines of
tail -f – Continually reads updating file. Great for
monitoring growth of a log file while being written.
tar -cvf /dev/ rmt/ 0c /usr/ bin/* – Tape archive utility.
Copies all files in /usr/ bin directory to tape device
/dev/ rmt/ .
tar -xvf /dev/ rmt/ 0 /usr/ bin/ – Extracts all files from
tape device /dev/ rmt/ 0 and writes them to /usr/ bin/
tar -tvf /dev/ rmt/ 0c – Read tape on device /dev/ rmt/ 0c
and lists contents in verbose mode.
tee – Used in scripts to split output to two outputs.
Usually used with a pipe command (|).
tee -a /tmp/ filename1 – Append the output to filename1 without overwriting its
original content.
telnet hostb – Create a remote terminal on hostb .
touch filename1 – Creates an empty file named filename1 .
Changes modification time to current time
if the file already exists.
uname -a – Lists 0/ S revision, host name, hardware.
uncompress filename1 – Uncompresses file with .Z suffix, created by compress command previously.
uptime – Displays current time, time logged- in, number of users etc.
users – Displays current logged- in users in a listing.
uucp – UNIX- to- UNIX copy utility. See man pages.
view filename1 – A read only version of vi editor.
w – Combination of uptime, who and ps -a commands.
wall – Write to all. Allows entry of message to be sent to line 25 of all terminals. End message with
a CTRL- D command.
wc -l filename1 – Utility that counts the number oflines in filename1.
wc -c filename1 – Utility that counts the number of
bytes in filename1 . -m provides number of characters.
wc -w filename1 – Utility that counts the number of the words in filename1 .
whence filename2 – Prints path name location of
executable filename2 .
which filename2 – Similar to whence command.
who – Displays login name, terminal name, date, and time of login, of users currently logged in.
who am i – Displays effective user id of user.
who -b – Displays date/ time of last reboot.
who -r – Displays current system run level.

Visual Editor Commands and Navigation

Cursor Movement

h, j, k, l left, down, up and right movement
O,$ Jump to front, end of line
w skip to next word
CTRL- D Down one page
CTRL- U Up one page
G Skip to end of file
1G Skip to top of file
CTRL- R or CTRL- L Refresh screen.
/ text Search forward for text.
? text Search backward for text.
n Repeat search after find.

Line Numbering
CTRL- G Display current line number.
:99 Move to line number 99 .
Inserting Text
a Append after cursor
A Append to end of line
i Insert before cursor
I Insert at beginning of line
o Open new line below cursor
ESC Terminate edit mode return to
command mode
Changing Text
cw Change word
cc Change whole line
C Change text to end of line
dd Delete line
5dd Delete current line and next 4
D Delete to end of line
u Undo last change
U Restore current line
Moving Text
yy Yank a copy of current line
p Insert the previously yanked line
Saving and Exiting
ZZ Save and exit file
:wq Same as ZZ
:q! Exit without saving
:n Go to next file to be edited
:w filename1 Save edited file as filename1
Symbols > Redirect output< Redirect input
>> Append to file
| Pipe Output
& Run process in background
; Separate commands
* Match any char( s)
? Match a char


Random TIPS

Removing "Drive Not Available" from Solaris

These are steps I followed to remove the LUNS which were unmasked from the system.
Removing the Unused/Unmasked LUNS from Solaris.

1. First Step is identifying the from Format o/p.
2. Remove them from Volume Manager. In my case, they are veritas. so I used vxdisk rm
3. look at the cfgadm -al o/p to find the disks which are failing. they are failing because they are unmasked from this system and still OS sees them.
c3::50060482d53135b8,84 disk connected configured failing
c3::50060482d53135b8,86 disk connected configured failing
c3::50060482d53135b8,87 disk connected configured failing
3. luxadm -e offline /dev/rdsk/ # This will kick the device from failing to unusable. and also removes them from format o/p.
4. cfgadm -o unusable_FCP_dev -c unconfigure c3::50060482d53135b8
# This will remove all unusable LUNS from system for particular controller and target id. don't worry there might be some working devices on that target. This command won't affect them. they'll be in working state only.
5. clean the device files using devfsadm -Cv
6. You should be clear now in both format and cfgadm -al.

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